八 web爬虫讲解2—urllib库爬虫—ip代理—用户代理和ip代理结合应用

使用IP代理ProxyHandler()格式化IP,第一个参数,请求目标可能是http或者https,对应设置
build_opener()初始化IP
install_opener()将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib
import urllib.request
import random   #引入随机模块文件

ip = "180.115.8.212:39109"
proxy = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({"https":ip})                        #格式化IP,注意:第一个参数可能是http或者https,对应设置
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy,urllib.request.HTTPHandler)  #初始化IP
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)       #将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP

#请求
url = "https://www.baidu.com/"
data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
print(data)
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 ip代理池构建一适合IP存活时间长,稳定性好的代理ip,随机调用列表里的ip
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib
from urllib import request
import random   #引入随机模块文件
def dai_li_ip():
    ip = [
        '110.73.8.103:8123',
        '115.46.151.100:8123',
        '42.233.187.147:19'
        ]
    shui = random.choice(ip)
    print(shui)
    proxy = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({"https": shui})  # 格式化IP,注意,第一个参数,请求目标可能是http或者https,对应设置
    opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy, urllib.request.HTTPHandler)  # 初始化IP
    urllib.request.install_opener(opener)  # 将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP

#请求
dai_li_ip() #执行代理IP函数
url = "https://www.baidu.com/"
data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
print(data)
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 ip代理池构建二,接口方式每次调用第三方接口动态获取ip,适用于IP存活时间短的情况我们用http://http.zhimaruanjian.com/第三方接口测试
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib
from urllib import request
import json
def dai_li_ip():
    url = "http://http-webapi.zhimaruanjian.com/getip?num=1&type=2&pro=&city=0&yys=0&port=11&time=1&ts=0&ys=0&cs=0&lb=1&sb=0&pb=4&mr=1"
    data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
    data2 = json.loads(data)  # 将字符串还原它本来的数据类型

    print(data2['data'][0])
    ip = str(data2['data'][0]['ip'])
    dkou = str(data2['data'][0]['port'])
    zh_ip = ip + ':' + dkou
    print(zh_ip)


    proxy = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({"https": zh_ip})  # 格式化IP,注意,第一个参数,请求目标可能是http或者https,对应设置
    opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy, urllib.request.HTTPHandler)  # 初始化IP
    urllib.request.install_opener(opener)  # 将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP

#请求
dai_li_ip() #执行代理IP函数
url = "https://www.baidu.com/"
data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
print(data)
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 用户代理和ip代理结合应用
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib
from urllib import request
import json
import random
def yh_dl():    #创建用户代理池
    yhdl = [
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-us) AppleWebKit/534.50 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1 Safari/534.50',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.0; Trident/4.0)',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.6; rv:2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; rv:2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1',
        'Opera/9.80 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.6.8; U; en) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11',
        'Opera/9.80 (Windows NT 6.1; U; en) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Maxthon 2.0)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; TencentTraveler 4.0)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; The World)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; 360SE)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Avant Browser)',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1)',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
        'User-Agent:Mozilla/5.0 (iPod; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; U; CPU OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.7; en-us; Nexus One Build/FRF91) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1',
        'Opera/9.80 (Android 2.3.4; Linux; Opera Mobi/build-1107180945; U; en-GB) Presto/2.8.149 Version/11.10',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 3.0; en-us; Xoom Build/HRI39) AppleWebKit/534.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Safari/534.13',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (BlackBerry; U; BlackBerry 9800; en) AppleWebKit/534.1+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0.0.337 Mobile Safari/534.1+',
        'Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows Phone OS 7.5; Trident/5.0; IEMobile/9.0; HTC; Titan)',
        'UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
        'NOKIA5700/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
        'Openwave/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
        'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; ) Opera/UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999'
        ]
    thisua = random.choice(yhdl)                    #随机获取代理信息
    headers = ("User-Agent",thisua)                 #拼接报头信息
    opener = urllib.request.build_opener()          #创建请求对象
    opener.addheaders=[headers]                     #添加报头到请求对象
    urllib.request.install_opener(opener)           #将报头信息设置为全局,urlopen()方法请求时也会自动添加报头

def dai_li_ip():    #创建ip代理池
    url = "http://http-webapi.zhimaruanjian.com/getip?num=1&type=2&pro=&city=0&yys=0&port=11&time=1&ts=0&ys=0&cs=0&lb=1&sb=0&pb=4&mr=1"
    data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
    data2 = json.loads(data)  # 将字符串还原它本来的数据类型

    print(data2['data'][0])
    ip = str(data2['data'][0]['ip'])
    dkou = str(data2['data'][0]['port'])
    zh_ip = ip + ':' + dkou
    print(zh_ip)


    proxy = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({"https": zh_ip})  # 格式化IP,注意,第一个参数,请求目标可能是http或者https,对应设置
    opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy, urllib.request.HTTPHandler)  # 初始化IP
    urllib.request.install_opener(opener)  # 将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP

#请求
dai_li_ip() #执行代理IP函数
yh_dl()     #执行用户代理池函数

gjci = '连衣裙'
zh_gjci = gjc = urllib.request.quote(gjci)         #将关键词转码成浏览器认识的字符,默认网站不能是中文
url = "https://s.taobao.com/search?q=%s&s=0" %(zh_gjci)
# print(url)
data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
print(data)
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 用户代理和ip代理结合应用封装模块
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib
from urllib import request
import json
import random
import re
import urllib.error
def hq_html(hq_url):
    """
    hq_html()封装的爬虫函数,自动启用了用户代理和ip代理
    接收一个参数url,要爬取页面的url,返回html源码
    """
    def yh_dl():    #创建用户代理池
        yhdl = [
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 6.1; en-us) AppleWebKit/534.50 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.1 Safari/534.50',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/5.0',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.0; Trident/4.0)',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.6; rv:2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; rv:2.0.1) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/4.0.1',
            'Opera/9.80 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10.6.8; U; en) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11',
            'Opera/9.80 (Windows NT 6.1; U; en) Presto/2.8.131 Version/11.11',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Maxthon 2.0)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; TencentTraveler 4.0)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; The World)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; 360SE)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1; Avant Browser)',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 7.0; Windows NT 5.1)',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (iPhone; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
            'User-Agent:Mozilla/5.0 (iPod; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (iPad; U; CPU OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.7; en-us; Nexus One Build/FRF91) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1',
            'Opera/9.80 (Android 2.3.4; Linux; Opera Mobi/build-1107180945; U; en-GB) Presto/2.8.149 Version/11.10',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 3.0; en-us; Xoom Build/HRI39) AppleWebKit/534.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Safari/534.13',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (BlackBerry; U; BlackBerry 9800; en) AppleWebKit/534.1+ (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/6.0.0.337 Mobile Safari/534.1+',
            'Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 9.0; Windows Phone OS 7.5; Trident/5.0; IEMobile/9.0; HTC; Titan)',
            'UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
            'NOKIA5700/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
            'Openwave/ UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999',
            'Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; ) Opera/UCWEB7.0.2.37/28/999'
            ]
        thisua = random.choice(yhdl)                    #随机获取代理信息
        headers = ("User-Agent",thisua)                 #拼接报头信息
        opener = urllib.request.build_opener()          #创建请求对象
        opener.addheaders=[headers]                     #添加报头到请求对象
        urllib.request.install_opener(opener)           #将报头信息设置为全局,urlopen()方法请求时也会自动添加报头

    def dai_li_ip(hq_url):    #创建ip代理池
        url = "http://http-webapi.zhimaruanjian.com/getip?num=1&type=2&pro=&city=0&yys=0&port=11&time=1&ts=0&ys=0&cs=0&lb=1&sb=0&pb=4&mr=1"
        if url:
            data = urllib.request.urlopen(url).read().decode("utf-8")
            data2 = json.loads(data)  # 将字符串还原它本来的数据类型
            # print(data2['data'][0])
            ip = str(data2['data'][0]['ip'])
            dkou = str(data2['data'][0]['port'])
            zh_ip = ip + ':' + dkou
            pat = "(w*):w*"
            rst = re.compile(pat).findall(hq_url)  #正则匹配获取是http协议还是https协议
            rst2 = rst[0]
            proxy = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({rst2: zh_ip})  # 格式化IP,注意,第一个参数,请求目标可能是http或者https,对应设置
            opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy, urllib.request.HTTPHandler)  # 初始化IP
            urllib.request.install_opener(opener)  # 将代理IP设置成全局,当使用urlopen()请求时自动使用代理IP
        else:
            pass

    #请求
    try:
        dai_li_ip(hq_url) #执行代理IP函数
        yh_dl()     #执行用户代理池函数

        data = urllib.request.urlopen(hq_url).read().decode("utf-8")
        return data
    except urllib.error.URLError as e:  # 如果出现错误
        if hasattr(e, "code"):  # 如果有错误代码
            # print(e.code)  # 打印错误代码
            pass
        if hasattr(e, "reason"):  # 如果有错误信息
            # print(e.reason)  # 打印错误信息
            pass

# a = hq_html('http://www.baid.com/')
# print(a)
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 模块使用
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#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import urllib.request
import fzhpach
gjc = '广告录音'
gjc = urllib.request.quote(gjc)                 #将关键词转码成浏览器认识的字符,默认网站不能是中文
url = 'https://www.baidu.com/s?wd=%s&pn=0' %(gjc)
a = fzhpach.hq_html(url)
print(a)
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